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Introduction to textile fibers

Liangsheng

Introduction to textile fibers

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[Abstract]:
Although textile fibers have a wide variety, they can be basically divided into two categories: natural fibers and chemical fibers.

First, natural fiber

1. Brief description: Natural fiber refers to textile fibers that are found in nature or directly from artificially cultured animals. Usually includes:

1) Plant fiber: A seed fiber: such as cotton B bast fiber: such as ramie, flax, jute, hemp, etc.

2) Animal fiber: A hair fiber: such as wool, rabbit hair, cashmere, camel hair, yak B secretion fiber: such as mulberry silk, tussah silk, silk silk, cassava silk and so on. C Mineral fiber: such as asbestos.

2. Description

1) Cotton

A It is hygroscopic, comfortable to wear, easy to dye, and easy to shrink.

B Alkali and acid resistant, mercerized cotton is a cotton fabric treated with caustic soda.

C cotton fiber is more heat-resistant, but it is not suitable for long-term treatment at 100 degrees or longer. For example, the ironing temperature is about 190 degrees. It is best to spray wet cotton fabric when ironing, which is good for ironing.

D cotton fiber is soft, weak, cotton fabric feels good, comfortable to wear, washable, but easy to wrinkle, suitable for all kinds of clothing and bedding in all seasons.

2) Hemp

There are many varieties of hemp, such as ramie, flax, jute, marijuana, etc.; the former two in the fabric are more secret. Hemp has some of the same properties as cotton.

A Strong hygroscopicity, alkali resistance and acid resistance.

B Heat resistance is also good, ironing temperature can reach 190 degrees - 210 degrees, easy to burn.

C strength is higher than cotton, hemp fiber is hard, weak is weak, fabric is easy to wrinkle, harder than cotton fabric, quite cool. The so-called Xiabu, that is, the ramie fabric that the southerners love to wear, does not fit close to the body after sweating.

D Ramie is the best quality fiber in hemp fiber. It has the characteristics of coolness, moisture absorption and breathability. It is also high in rigidity, hard, quite and not close to the body. It is suitable for making summer clothing.

3) Mao

The upper wool, which is the most used for textile wool, is usually called wool. The wool fiber is thicker than the cotton fiber, has a certain curl, and has a scale covering the surface. Due to the presence of scales, wool is given a special property, namely fluffiness. The fluffing property refers to the fact that the wool is kneaded in warm water and washing liquid, and is bitten and felted together. In the life, the hair product is shrunk after washing, and the density is increased. The fluffing is one of the reasons. If the scale is broken and the performance is smooth and flat, the wool product does not shrink. Therefore, machine-washed sweaters sold on the market are subjected to such surface treatment.

Wool is a protein fiber and its main properties:

A has good elasticity, is not easy to wrinkle, has a good hand and soft luster, and has a fluffy property.

B has good hygroscopicity, but the plasticity becomes very large after wetness, the elasticity is poor, and the shape retention property is lowered. Therefore, general wool clothing should be dry-cleaned and should not be wet-washed.

C Acid and alkali resistance, so avoid using alkaline detergent when washing wool products.

D is sensitive to oxidants, especially chlorine-containing oxidants, which turn yellow and reduce strength. Therefore, wool cannot be bleached with bleaching powder or washed with bleaching powder.

E Wool is not as heat resistant as cotton. It can't be boiled with boiling water at the first time. The ironing temperature is 160 degrees - 180 degrees. When it is hot, it is best to hold the wet cloth in the middle.

F fluff is thinner than normal wool, and most of it grows close to the epidermis of animals. It has excellent performances of fineness, lightness, softness and good warmth. It is a high-grade clothing fabric, but it is expensive and has low strength. Usually the so-called cashmere coat, cashmere sweater, the cashmere content is not 100%, more than 30% of cashmere will play the excellent characteristics of cashmere.

4) Silk

Natural silk is divided into silk and wild silk, silk is silk, and silk is the main variety of wild silk. The silk has high strength, slender fiber, soft and smooth, and is weaker than cellulose fiber, and has a unique luster. The silk fabric is thin and sleek, and it can make it full and enterprising. It is a high-strength clothing material, which is a protein fiber like wool.

The nature of mulberry silk:

A Hygroscopicity, high strength, soft handfeel and bright surface.

B can resist the action of acid and alkali. If the silk products are treated with acetic acid, the softness is increased, the hand feels loose and lubricated, and the gloss becomes better. Therefore, when washing silk garments, a small amount of white vinegar can be added to the final rinse water to improve the appearance and feel.

C is not resistant to salt water
Although textile fibers have a wide variety, they can be basically divided into two categories: natural fibers and chemical fibers.
 
First, natural fiber
 
1. Brief description: Natural fiber refers to textile fibers that are found in nature or directly from artificially cultured animals. Usually includes:
 
1) Plant fiber: A seed fiber: such as cotton B bast fiber: such as ramie, flax, jute, hemp, etc.
 
2) Animal fiber: A hair fiber: such as wool, rabbit hair, cashmere, camel hair, yak B secretion fiber: such as mulberry silk, tussah silk, silk silk, cassava silk and so on. C Mineral fiber: such as asbestos.
 
2. Description
 
1) Cotton
 
A It is hygroscopic, comfortable to wear, easy to dye, and easy to shrink.
 
B Alkali and acid resistant, mercerized cotton is a cotton fabric treated with caustic soda.
 
C cotton fiber is more heat-resistant, but it is not suitable for long-term treatment at 100 degrees or longer. For example, the ironing temperature is about 190 degrees. It is best to spray wet cotton fabric when ironing, which is good for ironing.
 
D cotton fiber is soft, weak, cotton fabric feels good, comfortable to wear, washable, but easy to wrinkle, suitable for all kinds of clothing and bedding in all seasons.
 
2) Hemp
 
There are many varieties of hemp, such as ramie, flax, jute, marijuana, etc.; the former two in the fabric are more secret. Hemp has some of the same properties as cotton.
 
A Strong hygroscopicity, alkali resistance and acid resistance.
 
B Heat resistance is also good, ironing temperature can reach 190 degrees - 210 degrees, easy to burn.
 
C strength is higher than cotton, hemp fiber is hard, weak is weak, fabric is easy to wrinkle, harder than cotton fabric, quite cool. The so-called Xiabu, that is, the ramie fabric that the southerners love to wear, does not fit close to the body after sweating.
 
D Ramie is the best quality fiber in hemp fiber. It has the characteristics of coolness, moisture absorption and breathability. It is also high in rigidity, hard, quite and not close to the body. It is suitable for making summer clothing.
 
3) Mao
 
The upper wool, which is the most used for textile wool, is usually called wool. The wool fiber is thicker than the cotton fiber, has a certain curl, and has a scale covering the surface. Due to the presence of scales, wool is given a special property, namely fluffiness. The fluffing property refers to the fact that the wool is kneaded in warm water and washing liquid, and is bitten and felted together. In the life, the hair product is shrunk after washing, and the density is increased. The fluffing is one of the reasons. If the scale is broken and the performance is smooth and flat, the wool product does not shrink. Therefore, machine-washed sweaters sold on the market are subjected to such surface treatment.
 
Wool is a protein fiber and its main properties:
 
A has good elasticity, is not easy to wrinkle, has a good hand and soft luster, and has a fluffy property.
 
B has good hygroscopicity, but the plasticity becomes very large after wetness, the elasticity is poor, and the shape retention property is lowered. Therefore, general wool clothing should be dry-cleaned and should not be wet-washed.
 
C Acid and alkali resistance, so avoid using alkaline detergent when washing wool products.
 
D is sensitive to oxidants, especially chlorine-containing oxidants, which turn yellow and reduce strength. Therefore, wool cannot be bleached with bleaching powder or washed with bleaching powder.
 
E Wool is not as heat resistant as cotton. It can't be boiled with boiling water at the first time. The ironing temperature is 160 degrees - 180 degrees. When it is hot, it is best to hold the wet cloth in the middle.
 
F fluff is thinner than normal wool, and most of it grows close to the epidermis of animals. It has excellent performances of fineness, lightness, softness and good warmth. It is a high-grade clothing fabric, but it is expensive and has low strength. Usually the so-called cashmere coat, cashmere sweater, the cashmere content is not 100%, more than 30% of cashmere will play the excellent characteristics of cashmere.
 
4) Silk
 
Natural silk is divided into silk and wild silk, silk is silk, and silk is the main variety of wild silk. The silk has high strength, slender fiber, soft and smooth, and is weaker than cellulose fiber, and has a unique luster. The silk fabric is thin and sleek, and it can make it full and enterprising. It is a high-strength clothing material, which is a protein fiber like wool.
 
The nature of mulberry silk:
 
A Hygroscopicity, high strength, soft handfeel and bright surface.
 
B can resist the action of acid and alkali. If the silk products are treated with acetic acid, the softness is increased, the hand feels loose and lubricated, and the gloss becomes better. Therefore, when washing silk garments, a small amount of white vinegar can be added to the final rinse water to improve the appearance and feel.
 
C is not resistant to salt water erosion. It will be immersed in 0.5% salt for a long time, and the strength will be reduced. Therefore, the silk clothing worn in summer should be diligently changed, and the sea water should not be used first.
 
D The light resistance is poor, and the drying of the fiber makes the fiber yellowish and brittle. Therefore, it cannot be exposed to strong light and wool after washing, and should not be treated with chlorine bleach or detergent.
 
The nature of tussah silk
 
Hygroscopicity, heat resistance and chemical resistance are better than mulberry silk. The gloss is soft, but not as bright as silk, the hand is not as smooth as the silk, good moisture permeability, suitable for all kinds of daily life, but also can be used for acid-resistant overalls and protective clothing for live working.
 
The nature of silk
 
The silk yarn is a yarn spun from waste silk or a lower leg yarn, and is divided into two types: a silk yarn (yarn) or a filament (yarn). The silk has good luster, uniform surface, short fiber, poor gloss, many impurities, low strength, easy to fluff. It is commonly used to make cotton silk products. Its price and grade are relatively low, but due to its special rough style, the fabric market in recent years. It is very popular.
 
Second, chemical fiber
 
1. Brief description: Chemical fiber is a textile fiber produced by a certain method using natural or synthetic high polymer as raw material.
 
1) Man-made fiber: A fiber made by spinning a certain high-polymer (such as wood, bagasse or animal fiber). It usually includes: A man-made cellulose fiber; such as viscose fiber, rich fiber, acetate fiber, and the like. B Artificial protein fiber: such as casein fiber, soybean fiber, peanut fiber, etc. C Artificial inorganic fibers: such as glass fiber, metal fiber, etc.
 
2) Synthetic fiber: a fiber made from petroleum, coal, natural gas and some agricultural and sideline products, which are made of synthetic high-mesh. Usually included: A polyester fiber (polyester) B polyamide fiber (nylon) C polypropylene alcohol fiber (acrylic) D polyvinyl alcohol fiber (Vinyl) E polyvinyl chloride fiber (chlorinated fiber) F polypropylene fiber (polypropylene) G Polyamino acid ester fiber (spandex) H Other fibers: such as aramid.
 
2. Properties of chemical fibers
 
Chemical fiber as the main material of clothing is the seven major fibers, their common characteristics are as follows:
 
A Hygroscopicity is generally lower than that of natural fibers. It is easy to carry static electricity after rubbing and is easy to absorb dust.
 
B Most of the strength is high, the elasticity is good, and it is easy to wear the hair ball.
 
C When burning, it generally softens and shrinks first, and some can melt, produce dripping and drawing, emit odor, and the ironing temperature is lower than natural fiber.
 
D heat setting is better, because they are less hygroscopic, so they can remain as they are after washing.